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Write 10 page essay on the topic Development Criminologists argue that both the individual and family factors can determine future offending behavior.

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(2011) comes into existence as a result of the interaction between people’s characteristics and the experiences that are encountered with the environment that one operates (Downes 2011, p. 25). Therefore an individual future offending behavior comes as an outcome of the individual’s characteristics and the environment that he or she interact notably the family. Development criminologists argue that for most future offenders, individual experiences and characteristics is considered an important factor contributing to offending behavior (Downes 2011). In the same school of thought family environment is also an influencing factor in regard to the future offenders. The two perspectives provide an insight on how its underlying factors are associated with offending in the future (Hughes 2003, p. 59). Both individual and family factors often ameliorate the offence and they have a significant correlation with the offending behavior. OVERVIEW OF RISKS FACTORS AND CAUSAL MECHANISM According to Jewkes, Y. and Letherby, G. , (2002) they provide that both the family and individual factors influencing the likelihood of offending in the future may casually relate to the offending or correlate with the behavior itself. Each of the factors in the respective perspective interacts with the other in a complex manner contributing to the greater risk of offending in the future (Letherby 2002, p. 26). …

56). FAMILY INFLUENCE ON FUTURE OFFENDING BEHAVIOR It is perceived by many that the main cause of offending behavior is attributed to the family factors usually associated with poor parenting and child-rearing methods. All these lead to poor discipline and control of children which is a major leading to development of offending behavior (Hughes 200, p. 59). According to Downes (2011) he provides that asserting from the surveys taken on adult offenders shows that the family factors was the most popular cause of their offending behavior. The family factors entail the following. Crime Runs in Families According to Hale C., Hayward K., Wahidin A. and Wincup E. (2009) on surveys they conducted on the relation of children offending behavior and families he provides that anti-social and criminal parents have the tendency of having anti-social and offending children in the future. In addition more extensive research carried out in concerning the concentration of offending families, the results was that having a convicted brother, sister, mother or father predicted significantly the future offending behavior of a boy (Newburn 2007, p. 98). Same-sex relations are stronger as compared to opposite sex, asserting from this it can be argued that conviction of the fathers has significant influence in regard to the boys offending behavior. In regard to this having a convicted parent or an older offending sibling has a significant influence on the future offending behavior (Downes 2011, p. 105). Other factors in regard to crime runs in the families are negligence on parent supervision and the juvenile self-reported offending behavior.

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